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Simple compression methods Traditional lossless compression methods (Huffman, LZW, etc.) are usually poorly applied to compressing audio information (for the same reasons as when compressing visual information). Some lossy compression…

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Memo to the musician: frequencies. Frequencies to Remember

Classically, the sound spectrum is divided into three parts: low, medium and high frequencies. The frequency limits, although not everyone agrees with this, can be denoted as follows: low from 10 Hz to 200 Hz, medium from 200 Hz to 5 kHz, and from 5 kHz – high. For a more precise definition, let’s divide these three parts into smaller ones and consider them separately.

1) Low bass (from 10 Hz to 80 Hz) – these are the lowest notes from which the room resonates, and the wires begin to hum. If your audio equipment does not reproduce these frequencies, you should experience a loss of saturation and depth of sound. Naturally, when recording and mixing, the loss of these frequencies will cause the same effect.

2) Upper basses (from 80 Hz to 200 Hz) are the top notes of bass instruments and the lowest notes of instruments such as a guitar. If you lose this register, then with it the feeling of sound power is lost. But it is precisely at these frequencies that the energy of sound is contained, which makes you dance to music, not without reason the main energy of the rhythm section is concentrated in this particular register.

3) Low mids (from 200 Hz to 500 Hz) – almost the entire rhythm and accompaniment is located here, this is the guitar register.

4) Medium medium (from 500 Hz to 2.500 Hz) – solo violins, solo guitars, piano, vocals. Music that lacks these frequencies is usually called “boring” or “dark.”

5) External averages (from 2.500 Hz to 5 kHz). Although there are few notes in this range, only the topmost notes of the piano and some other instruments, there are many harmonics and overtones. Amplification of this part of the spectrum allows you to achieve a bright, sparkling sound, creating the effect of presence. However, if the energy of this frequency band is excessive, then it cuts the ear. This is called “listening fatigue” and is the problem of most inexpensive acoustic systems that artificially enhance this part of the spectrum for the “brightness” of the sound. Well, these are already commercial things!

6) Low high (about 5 kHz to 10 kHz), where we encounter the strongest distortion of high frequencies and where the hiss of the film (for fans of cassette recording) becomes most noticeable, since there are very few other sounds that can hide this. Although people can theoretically hear higher tones, these frequencies are considered the limit of perception. But by and large, for a good sound – this is not enough.

7) The upper treble (about 10 kHz to 20 kHz) is our last octave, these are the thinnest and most gentle high frequencies. If this frequency range is inferior, then you will feel some discomfort when listening to recordings (unless, of course, the bear has stepped on your ear).

The electrical network is noisy at a frequency of 50 Hz. To eliminate this, you need to remove the frequencies of 50 and 100 Hz using a parametric equalizer, the bandwidth of which is quite narrow. This will eliminate network noise, but will not noticeably affect the overall sound. The graphic equalizer (one third of an octave) is also effective in this situation, but it is better not to use other types of equalizers for this, since they have too wide a zone of influence and adjustment can significantly change the sound of the bass guitar, including not for the better side. The lower frequencies of the bass guitar and bass drum lie in the region of 40 Hz and below. To give their sound power (attack), adjust the frequency of 80 Hz. The lower frequency of the electric guitar is 80 Hz. To eliminate the “barrel”, it is necessary to cut the frequency of 200 Hz; to eliminate a sharp, unpleasant overtones – weaken in the region of 1KHz. To add “do”, to “sting” the sound of a rock guitar, look at the area from 1.5 kHz to 4 kHz, find the desired frequency and remove it until the attack becomes what you want. The main problem with acoustic guitars, as a rule, is that they sound “barrel-like” – due to inappropriate microphones, poor microphone placement, acoustic characteristics of the room or simply because the instrument is bad. The area of ​​”harmful” frequency is usually between 200 Hz and 500 Hz – it must be cut out. Vocals also occupy a large area of ​​the frequency range, while the 2-4 kHz region is adjustable to improve articulation.

The frequency range of musical instruments

Piano, piano 27-4200 Hz
Double bass 40-300 Hz
Electric bass 41-250 Hz
Tuba 45-320 Hz
French horn 60-740 Hz
Bassoon 60-630 Hz
Cello 65-880 Hz
Trombone 80-500 Hz
Acoustic Guitar 82-1175 Hz
Electric guitar 82-1570 Hz
Alt 130-1240 Hz
Clarinet 140-1980 Hz
Tube 160-990 Hz
Violins 210-2800 Hz
Oboe 230-1480 Hz
Flute 240-2300 Hz
Piccolo flute 560-2500 Hz
The frequency range of the human voice:

Bass 75-330 Hz
Tenor 120-500 Hz
Mezzo Soprano 170-700 Hz
Soprano 230-1100 Hz
1. When comparing the frequency range of musical instruments and the human voice, the latter has the widest range of frequencies (except for the piano and piano).
2. It is also necessary to take into account the sound strength (dynamic range) of these instruments.

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