Reverb in music
In recent years, technologies in the field of creating spatio-temporal effects have improved significantly, and we can talk about significant progress in this area. We owe this progress to scientific…

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Reasoning about art
“The poet owns the form, and the content belongs to the history and reality of his people” (Belinsky; compare Glinka: “The people compose music, we only arrange it”). Consequently, the…

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On the perception of sound and music. Sound Perception and Compression
Simple compression methods Traditional lossless compression methods (Huffman, LZW, etc.) are usually poorly applied to compressing audio information (for the same reasons as when compressing visual information). Some lossy compression…

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To the musician: Frequencies that are useful to remember. Frequency Musician Memo

The network (power) is noisy at a frequency of 50 Hz (and multiplied). To eliminate this, you need to remove the frequencies of 50 and 100 Hz using a parametric equalizer, the bandwidth of which is quite narrow. Then this will not significantly affect the overall sound, but will eliminate the network noise. The graphic equalizer (one third of an octave) is also applicable in this situation, but it is better not to use the other types of equalizers, since they have too wide (influence zone) and the adjustment can seriously change the sound of the 6ac guitar.


The lower frequencies of the bass guitar and bass drum lie in the region of 40 Hz or less. To give these sounds power (attack), adjust the frequency to 80 Hz. Many modern microphones designed for the bass drum have a small peak at this frequency, which allows you to achieve a good, thick sound.

When processing the sound of some bass guitars, it is necessary to remove a certain amount of the lower middle (again, do not overdo it, otherwise you will get thin unreadable bass). Also, it is often necessary to raise the gain in the range of about 2000 hertz (much more than you think when you are in
“Solo”). Sometimes it’s good to raise the “bottom” of about 40 hertz to give the sound a solid foundation.


The lower frequency of the electric guitar is 80 Hz. To eliminate the barrels, it is necessary to cut the frequency of 200 Hz; to eliminate an unpleasant sharp sound – weaken in the region of 1 kHz. In any case, the sweep equalizer must be tuned by ear. To achieve high sharp sound, use a hi shelving control filter. You can also experiment with bell equaliser (6 kHz – 10 kHz). To “add poison”, to make the sound of a rock guitar “sting”, look at the area from 1.5 kHz to 4 kHz, find the desired frequency and remove it until the attack becomes as it should.

Guitar equalization

Usually, when processing the sound of a guitar, it is only necessary to decorate it with a “raising” gain in the range from 3000 to 6000 hertz and slightly lower the bubbling 300 hertz.


The main problem with acoustic guitars, as a rule, is that they sound barrel-like (due to inappropriate microphones, microphone position, acoustic characteristics of the room – or simply because the instrument is bad). To fix this drawback, you can use sweep equalizer:
the “harmful” frequency region is usually between 200 Hz and 500 Hz; it must be cut. Amplification in the lower middle region is likely to make the sound sharp, so it is always better to use the upper filter for smooth rise and fall, if you want to give the guitar sound a special brightness.


Vocals also occupy most of the frequency range, with the 2-4 kHz region being adjusted to improve articulation. Whenever possible, try to avoid a lot of amplification, as the natural sound of the voice may be lost. Use the upper filter for a smooth decline and rise to give the voice brightness, if necessary; bell equaliser is hardly applicable here.

Vocals equalization

All voices are extremely different. It is customary not to equalize vocals when recording for the simple reason that in the future it will be difficult to find the same position of the controls when you need to rewrite a fragment. This is wonderful because, in any case, the voices do not equalize much – our ear is most sensitive to sounds lying in the midrange, and it is there that the frequency response of the voice is located.
In addition, our ear is very sensitive to the naturalness of the sound of the voice, the voice should sound better than any sound in the world, therefore, it is important to equalize the vocals as stingy as possible – just remove a little 300 hertz, and also a little 3,000 – 4,000 hertz. The rise in frequency response of the original signal in the upper middle region is due not only to the harmonic structure inherent in the sound, but may also be a consequence
applications when recording a cheap or just a bad microphone. It is also useful to use a high-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 60 hertz to get rid of any low-frequency noise and overtones.


Bass Equalization

Sound engineers often try to get one of three types of drum sound:
1. “Dead thud”, typical for drums with one muffled plastic and a heavy object (brick, sand bag, the base of the microphone stand) on the body or inside it, Resonant ringing received from a drum with two plastics with a small hole in the front, “Dull boom” from a drum with two plastics without holes in them, typical of rap, hip-hop and techno.
The first two types usually have an excess of “muddy lower middle” in the region of 300 Hz — up to 10 dB — and a rise of a few dB in the upper-middle part of the frequency response (5000 – 6000 Hz). The third type also has a small excess of “turbidity” at 300 hertz and a significant increase in frequency response in the lower part of the range (from 40 to 100 hertz). You can slightly pinch and “top”, thereby reducing the unwanted attack of sound.

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