Musical notation. About musical notation
Musical notation is an ordered set of musical notation symbols designed to convey some musical material in writing.
Musical notation – a system of graphic characters used to record music. Each of the well-known notation systems has its own set of musical notes, differing in form and names.
A note (Latin nota – sign) is a conventional graphic sign located on a stave (a bearer, as the five lines are sometimes called, on which notes are recorded) and indicating the pitch and relative duration of a sound.
Often the term “note” is used to mean sound. So, “sound up” and “note up” can be perceived as one and the same.
Now, it is impossible to imagine that there was a time when there was no musical recording in the world and music was transmitted only verbally. The urgent need to find a way to preserve musical tunes has led to the creation of musical notation.
Through the efforts of many generations, more and more advanced systems have been created for translating the “live” sound of music into the language of conditional graphic recording – notation. Look at the samples of musical text shown in the illustrations, compare them with each other – and you will see how they are different. But with all the differences in them there is one thing in common: music is fixed with the help of special conventional signs. They changed over the centuries-old development of musical culture, were different among different peoples, and it took a long time before people came to the form of musical notation that is used now.
Of all the known methods, the most ancient is the designation of melodies transmitted by ear, using drawings. Samples of such a record were discovered in the study of ancient Egyptian monuments. The most ancient methods also include syllabic recording of musical sounds with the help of cuneiform, which was used, as scientists suggest, in Ancient Babylon. Further development of musical writing is associated with the letter designation of sounds indicating their height. Originating in ancient Greece, this system is becoming more widespread. Over time, the letters of the Greek alphabet are replaced by Latin. And now you can see the designation of the sound “do” with the Latin letter “c”, the sound “re” – the letter “d”, etc.
In the Middle Ages, an irresponsible notation appeared, characteristic of cult music. One of its varieties is Russian hook, or znamenny, writing. Legend – Nevma (in Russia they were called hooks, banners) consisted of graphic icons such as dashes, dots, commas and their various combinations. They were put down over the verbal text and designated individual sounds or melodic turns, voice moves up and down, repetition of the same sound, character and method of performance.
Music notation (About musical notation)
Nevy (lat. Neuma) – the first musical notation, which was used in Europe. The gradual evolution of nemesis has led to the emergence of modern musical notation.
The word “nevma” comes from the late Latin neuma, which in turn comes from other Greek. “Air” is breathing. The original nemes were a set of dashes, dots and commas affixed to the text of the psalms and were used mainly in Catholic singing. At that time, the nevms indicated only certain sounds and the course of the voice (up or down), but did not indicate their exact pitch, so they could not tell the singer a new melody, but could only recall a well-known motive.
Music notation (About musical notation)
Later (from about the 9th century) in Western European music they began to be recorded on one or two horizontal lines, the letter designation of which or their color (red, yellow) determined the height of the nevms located on them. So gradually in the bowels of irresponsible writing a linear notation arose, combining the visibility of the nevm and the sonic accuracy of the letter notation. In the XI century. It was perfected by the Italian musician Guido d’Arezzo. He developed a way to record notes on a musical string consisting of four horizontal parallel lines. Literal signs denoting the height of each of them, and nevma began to be recorded not only on the lines themselves, but also in the gaps between them. All four lines were combined into a single system, which became the prototype of the modern musical staff, and the letter designations of the line heights were gradually transformed into keys – conventional graphic signs that determine the height of the notes located on it.
Guido d’Arezzo is also known as the author of syllable names: “ut”, “re”, “mi”, “fa”, “salt”, “la”. They designated the steps of a six-stage scale (tone, tone, semitone, tone, tone). At the end of the XVI century. the syllable “si” was introduced in the second half of the 17th century to indicate the 7th stage in a seven-stage scale. the syllable “ut” is replaced by the syllable “do” .. These names have survived and now denote the pitch.
Subsequent improvement of musical writing in the period XIII-XVI centuries. followed the path of developing menstrual notation. She clearly conveyed the pitch of sounds, their duration.